Core Web Vitals are a set of specific website performance metrics introduced by Google. These metrics are designed to measure the user experience of a website in terms of loading speed, interactivity, and visual stability. Google considers Core Web Vitals to be important factors in determining a website’s search ranking and overall user satisfaction.
Metrics of core web vitals:
1. Largest Contentful Paint (LCP)
LCP measures the time it takes for the largest piece of content (usually an image, video, or text block) to become visible within the viewport. It indicates how quickly the main content of a page is loaded and is considered good if it occurs within 2.5 seconds or less.
LCP is crucial for user experience because it reflects how quickly users can see meaningful content on the page, which directly impacts their perception of website loading speed.
To provide a good user experience and improve LCP, you can follow these best practices:
- Optimize server and hosting: Ensure that your website is hosted on a reliable and fast server. Consider using a Content Delivery Network (CDN) to distribute your content across multiple servers geographically, reducing the distance data has to travel, and speeding up loading times.
- Compress and optimize images: Use compressed and properly sized images without sacrificing too much quality. Tools like ImageOptim, TinyPNG, or Squoosh can help with image optimization.
- Implement lazy loading: Lazy loading delays the loading of non-essential content (e.g., images below the fold) until the user scrolls near them. This technique can significantly reduce initial page load times.
- Enable browser caching: Leverage browser caching to store certain elements of your website locally on the user’s device, reducing the need to download them with each visit.
- Optimize web fonts: Limit the number of font styles and weights to only those that are necessary. Consider using system fonts or subsets of fonts to reduce the font file size.
- Improve server response time: Optimize your server-side code and database queries to reduce server response times.
- Use a performance monitoring tool: Regularly monitor your website’s performance using tools like Google PageSpeed Insights, Lighthouse, or WebPageTest. These tools can provide insights and recommendations to help you identify areas that need improvement.
By implementing these best practices and optimizing your website, you can improve the Largest Contentful Paint (LCP) metric, leading to a better user experience and potentially higher search engine rankings
2. First Input Delay (FID)
First Input Delay (FID) is a Core Web Vital metric that measures the responsiveness and interactivity of a web page. It quantifies the delay between a user’s first interaction (such as clicking a button, tapping a link, or entering text into a form field) and the time when the browser is able to respond to that interaction. FID is essential because it reflects how quickly a web page becomes interactive and how well it responds to user actions.
To improve First Input Delay (FID) and provide a more responsive user experience, you can follow these best practices:
- Optimize third-party scripts: Carefully review and analyze the impact of third-party scripts on your website’s performance. Consider removing or replacing any scripts that excessively delay the page’s interactivity.
- Optimize CSS: Minimize and optimize your CSS code to speed up rendering and reduce layout shifts, which can interfere with user interactions.
- Reduce main thread work: Identify and optimize any actions on the main thread that could delay user input processing. This might include animations, heavy DOM manipulations, or expensive rendering operations.
- Use a performance monitoring tool: Regularly monitor your website’s performance using tools like Google PageSpeed Insights, Lighthouse, or DevTools. These tools can help identify potential bottlenecks affecting FID.
- Improve server response time: Optimize server-side code and infrastructure to reduce the time it takes for the server to respond to user interactions.
- Prioritize visible content: Ensure that critical, above-the-fold content loads quickly and without any delays to enhance the perception of page responsiveness.
By implementing these practices, you can reduce First Input Delay (FID) and improve the overall interactivity of your website. Providing a smooth and responsive user experience can lead to increased user engagement and satisfaction, potentially resulting in better search engine rankings and higher conversion rates
3. Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS)
Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS) is a Core Web Vital metric that measures the visual stability of a web page during the loading process. It quantifies the cumulative sum of all individual layout shift scores that occur as the page elements load and change position. A layout shift happens when visible elements on the page move unexpectedly, often causing a poor user experience as it can lead to accidental clicks or frustration.
CLS is calculated by multiplying the impact fraction (the area of the element affected by the layout shift) by the distance fraction (how far the element moved) for each shifting element. A good CLS score is less than 0.1.
To improve Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS) and provide a more stable and pleasant user experience, you can follow these best practices:
- Reserve space for elements: Specify the dimensions (width and height) of images, videos, and other media elements in HTML or CSS. This practice ensures that the page layout remains stable and prevents unexpected shifts when media elements load.
- Use aspect ratios for media: Set aspect ratios using CSS (e.g.,
padding-top) for media elements like images and videos. This helps maintain a reserved space for the media, preventing sudden layout shifts when the content loads.
- Load fonts properly: Ensure that the font styles are loaded correctly and avoid “flash of unstyled text” (FOUT) or “flash of invisible text” (FOIT), which can cause layout shifts when the fonts load.
- Avoid dynamically injected content: Be cautious when adding content to the page dynamically, as it can cause unexpected shifts. If you need to add content dynamically, consider reserving space for it beforehand or using transitions to make the changes smoother.
- Optimize ad placement: If your website includes advertisements, place them in a way that won’t cause content to shift unexpectedly. Reserve space for ads so that they don’t lead to layout changes during page load.
- Test across different devices: Check your website’s layout on various devices and screen sizes to ensure that layout shifts are minimized across different resolutions and orientations.
- Use a performance monitoring tool: Regularly monitor your website’s performance using tools like Google PageSpeed Insights, Lighthouse, or DevTools to identify layout shift issues and potential causes.
By implementing these best practices, you can reduce Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS) and create a more visually stable website for your users.
4. Total Blocking Time (TBT)
Total Blocking Time (TBT) is a performance metric that measures the amount of time during which a web page is unresponsive to user input, particularly input that is related to interactivity. It is closely related to the First Input Delay (FID) metric, another Core Web Vitals metric. TBT helps gauge how quickly a web page responds to user actions, such as clicks, taps, or keyboard inputs, and how smoothly it handles these interactions.
To improve Total Blocking Time (TBT), consider the following:
- Minimize third-party scripts: Evaluate the impact of third-party scripts on your website’s performance and user experience. Remove or defer those that significantly contribute to TBT.
- Optimize rendering: Ensure that your CSS and HTML are structured to allow for smooth rendering. Minimize the use of large, complex CSS rules and optimize your HTML for faster parsing.
- Use web workers: Offload computationally intensive tasks to web workers to prevent them from blocking the main thread and causing TBT.